The Impact of ChatGPT on Problem-Based Learning in Medical Education: A Comparative Study on an Anaphylaxis Tutorial

Generative AI, such as ChatGPT provides many promises, yet its role in medical education remains unclear and controversial. To evaluate the impact of adopting ChatGPT in medical education, we developed a pilot randomised controlled trial to evaluate the impact of ChatGPT on medical students ability to achieve learning outcomes in a problem-based learning (PBL) tutorial on anaphylaxis. We then evaluated the ability of GPT-3.5 and GPT-4.0 to achieve the learning outcomes in the PBL case. Results showed that students who used ChatGPT achieve the learning outcomes better, and GPT-3.5 and GPT-4.0 models of ChatGPT could achieve the PBL learning outcomes with minimal prompting. Nevertheless, the adoption of ChatGPT could also hinder the development of clinical reasoning skills.